For Christ our pasch is sacrificed. – 1Cor.5:7 DRB
Ano ang kaugnayan ng Passover (Pasch) sa Krus ng Kalbaryo? Paano naging paschal lamb si Jesus?
He said, “Go into the city to a certain man and tell him, ‘The teacher says, “My appointed time draws near; in your house I shall celebrate the Passover with my disciples.”’” – Matthew 26:18 NABRE
Isang gabi bago ipako sa Krus ang Panginoong Jesus, nagdiwang siya ng Passover kasama ang kanyang mga alagad. Ang kasaysayan, kahulugan at kung paano ipagdiriwang ang Passover ay nasa Exodus 12.
Sa Exodus 12 wala tayong makikitang nakasulat tungkol sa inuming alak. Pero nung nagdiwang ang Panginoong Jesus ng Passover kasama na sa pagdiriwang ang pag-inum ng alak.
At ayon sa ilang rabbinic sources mayroong apat na cup na ginagamit sa pagdiriwang ng Passover. Ayon sa Mishnah Pesachim, 10.
On the eve of Passover [from] close to [the time of] the afternoon offering, no one must eat until nightfall. Even the poorest person in Israel must not eat [on the night of Passover] unless he reclines. And they must give him no fewer than four cups of wine, even [if he receives relief] from the charity plate.
They pour the first cup [of wine] for [the leader of the seder]. …He recites a blessing over the wine [first], and then recites a blessing for the day.
They pour a second cup [of wine] for him. And here the son questions his father. And if the son has insufficient understanding [to question], his father teaches him [to ask]:
They mix a third cup; he blesses his meal. [The] fourth [cup] is concluded with Hallel, which he says with the [concluding] blessing. Between these cups, if he wishes to drink, he may drink. Between the third and the fourth [cups], he may not drink.
(see also, https://www.sefaria.org/sheets/31880)
May ilang nagsasabi na ang apat na cup na ito ay sumisimbolo sa apat na pangako ng kaligtasan ng Diyos sa Exodus 6:6-7.
Therefore, say to the Israelites: I am the Lord. I will free you from the burdens of the Egyptians and will deliver you from their slavery. I will redeem you by my outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment. I will take you as my own people, and I will be your God and you will know that I, the Lord, am your God who has freed you from the burdens of the Egyptians (NABRE)
Ganito ang pagkakasunod-sunod ng pagdiriwang ng Passover:
- Solemn blessing
- First Cup
- Bitter Herbs
- Reading of Passover Story (Exodus 12)
- Psalms 113 (Hallel)
- Second Cup
- Passover Lamb
- Unleavened Bread
- Third Cup
- Psalms 114-118
- Fourth Cup
Bawat cup may pangalan:
1) Cup of Sanctification
2) Cup of Plagues
3) Cup of Blessing
4) Cup of Praise
Sa mga Ebanghelyo, noong nagdiwang ng Passover ang Panginoong Jesus, kasama na sa pagdiriwang yung four cups of wine sa Passover celebration, kaya sa account ni San Lucas ng institution ng Holy Eucharist may dalawang cup na itinaas ang Panginoong Jesus.
‘He said to them, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer, for, I tell you, I shall not eat it [again] until there is fulfillment in the kingdom of God.” Then he took a cup, gave thanks, and said, “Take this and share it among yourselves; for I tell you [that] from this time on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” Then he took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me.” And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which will be shed for you. ‘ – Luke 22:15-20 NABRE
He took a cup….tapos the bread, then the cup. Kung yung “the bread” (i.e. unleavened bread na isa sa main dishes ng Passover) ay nasa pagitan ng dalawang cup, ibig sabihin Second cup at Third Cup ang tinutukoy.
Third cup is the Cup of Blessing. Pasok yan sa sinasabi ni St. Paul sa 1 Corinthians 10:16.
‘The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? (NABRE)
Pero, ayon sa Synoptic Gospels pagkatapos nito, pumunta na sila sa Mount of Olives (Mat.26:30, Mark 14:26 , Luke 2239); ‘Then, after singing a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. ‘ What hymns? Psalms 114-118.
May binago ang Panginoong Jesus sa liturhiya ng Passover, sinabi niya na ang Unleavened Bread ay Body niya at ang Cup of Blessing ay Cup of the New Covenant. At hindi niya ininom ang pang-apat na alak; Cup of Praise. Hindi niya tinapos ang liturgy.
Pagdating sa Garden of Gethsemane, nagdasal ang Panginoong Jesus ng ganito…
“Abba, Father, all things are possible to you. Take this cup away from me, but not what I will but what you will.” ‘ – Mark 14:36
Anong cup yung tinutukoy niya? Yung Fourth Cup, the Cup of Praise. Paano niya ininom ang ikaapat?
‘ After this, aware that everything was now finished, in order that the scripture might be fulfilled, Jesus said, “I thirst.” There was a vessel filled with common wine. So they put a sponge soaked in wine on a sprig of hyssop and put it up to his mouth. When Jesus had taken the wine, he said, “It is finished.” And bowing his head, he handed over the spirit. ‘ – John 19:28-30
That the scripture might be fulfilled, Jesus said “I thirst”. Pero ang pinakamalapit na kadalasang ibinibigay na parallel sa Old Testament ay Psalms 22:16, 69:22. Pero kung papansining maigi, ibinalik ni St. John ang mga readers ng Ebanghelyo sa ideya ng Passover sa pamamagitan ng idea ng “hyssop”.
And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and the two side posts with the blood that is in the bason; and none of you shall go out at the door of his house until the morning. – Exodus 12:22
Ang bawat detalye na binabanggit ng mga manunulat ng Ebanghelyo (at ibang manunulat ng Kasulatan) ay hindi nagkataon lang na nandun. May dahilan kaya inilagay yun doon…at ang isang dahilan kung bakit isinulat ni St. John ang tungkol sa hyssop ay para ibalik ang isipan ng mga bumabasa ng Ebanghelyo sa idea ng pagdiriwang ng Passover.
Kaya, ang Passover Meal at Crucifixion ay magkaugnay. Ang Crucifixion ang fulfillment ng Passover. Hindi binuwag ng Panginoong Jesus ang Passover, ito ay kanyang pinagtibay at ginawang bago at walang hanggang tipan sa pamamagitan ng Kanyang Crucifixion.
Hindi plano ng Diyos na buwagin ang Passover ng Lumang Tipan, in fact walang hanggang pagdiriwang ito.
Keep, then, the custom of the unleavened bread, since it was on this very day that I brought your armies out of the land of Egypt. You must observe this day throughout your generations as a statute forever. – Exodus 12:17 NABRE
But I will remember the covenant I made with you when you were young; I will set up an everlasting covenant with you. – Ezekiel 16:60 NABRE
Then he took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me.” And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which will be shed for you. ‘ Luke 22:19-20 NABRE
Kaya nang sinabi ng Panginoong Jesus na John 19:30 na “It is finished”, hindi niya tinutukoy ang salvation (dahil ang Muling Pagkabuhay ang kukumpleto nun). Ang tinutukoy niya ay ang Passover, nainom na niya ang Fourth Cup.
Kung paghihiwalayin ang Last Supper at Crucifixion, ang Last Supper ay Passover Meal ng Lumang Tipan pa rin at ang Crucifixion ay ordinaryong Roman Execution lang.
Ang Last Supper at Crucifixion ay magkaugnay, ang Crucifixion ang fulfilment ng Passover.
Kaya taun-taon sa liturhiya ng Simbahang Katoliko ang Holy Thursday (Last Supper), Good Friday (Crucifixion) at Easter Vigil ay iisang Misa lang.
Buti na lang Katoliko na ako. 🙂