Protestant: Justification is an act of God’s free grace, wherein he pardoneth all our sins and accepteth us as righteous in his sight,only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and received by faith alone. (Westminster Shorter Catechism, Question #33)
Catholic: Justification is a transition from the state in which one is born a child of the first Adam, to the state of grace and adoption as children of God through the second Adam, Jesus Christ our Saviour. After the promulgation of the Gospel, this transition cannot take place without the bath of regeneration or the desire for it, as it is written:”Unless one is born of water and the Spirit, one cannot enter the kingdom of God.” (Council of Trent, Section VI Chapter IV, Decree on Justification)
Ano ang justification para sa Protestante? Ano justification para sa Katoliko?
Sa part 1 ipaliwanag ang justification ayon sa Simbahan. Sa part 2 naman ipinaliwanag ang justification ayon sa mga Protestante.
Ulitin lang muna natin, ang idea ng justification para sa Protestante ay ang mga sumusunod: forensic [justification], imputation of Christ’s righteousness, faith alone, one-time event with continuous effect, assurance of salvation, iba at/o hiwalay sa sanctification at/o adoption.
Mapapansin na sa mga Protestante, usong uso ang dichotomy. Isa na rito yung dichotomy ng justification as an act of God as a just Judge and adoption as an act of God as a loving Father.
Forensic ang pagkaunawa ng mga Protestante sa justification dahil hiwalay ito sa adoption [at sanctification]. Sa tuwing nagsasalita ang Protestante tungkol sa salvation/justification ang madalas na naiisip niya ay courtroom scenario at yun ang magiging starting point ng conversation ninyo. Justification muna, tapos adoption, tapos proseso na ng sanctification.
Pero kung ang Diyos ay Hukom sa justification at Ama sa adoption…
At kung magkasunod, ibig sabihin hindi magkasabay, na pangyayari ang dalawang ito…
Kailan nangyayari ang justification at ang adoption sa reyalidad ayon sa katuruan mga Protestante?
Hindi forensic ang pagkakaunawa ng Simbahan sa justification. Ibig sabihin hindi tinitingnan ng Simbahan ang justification na isang pangyayari sa isang hukuman dahil ang justification, adoption at sanctification ay magkakasama; magkakasabay na nangyayari.
Yes, God is the Judge but he is also the Father.
Justification is a transition from the state in which one is born a child of the first Adam, to the state of grace and adoption as children of God through the second Adam, Jesus Christ our Saviour. (Sec.VI, Chap. IV)
…justification itself which is not only a remission of sins but also the sanctification and renewal of the inward man…(Sec. VI, Chap. VII)
Kailan ito nangyayari? Nandoon na rin sa definition;“this transition cannot take place without the bath of regeneration or the desire for it”. Sa Baptism!
John 3:5 NIV – Jesus answered, “Very truly I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless they are born of water and the Spirit.”
Romans 6:4 KJV – Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.
Colosians 2:12 KJV – Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead.
1Peter 3:21 NIV – and this water symbolizes baptism that now saves you also—not the removal of dirt from the body but the pledge of a clear conscience toward God. It saves you by the resurrection of Jesus Christ…
Catechism of the Catholic Church, #1992 – Justification has been merited for us by the Passion of Christ who offered himself on the cross as a living victim, holy and pleasing to God, and whose blood has become the instrument of atonement for the sins of all men. Justification is conferred in Baptism, the sacrament of faith. It conforms us to the righteousness of God, who makes us inwardly just by the power of his mercy. Its purpose is the glory of God and of Christ, and the gift of eternal life:
Catechism of the Catholic Church, #1263 – By Baptism all sins are forgiven, original sin and all personal sins, as well as all punishment for sin. In those who have been reborn nothing remains that would impede their entry into the Kingdom of God, neither Adam’s sin, nor personal sin, nor the consequences of sin, the gravest of which is separation from God.
Para sa Simbahan, walang dichotomy ang Diyos bilang Hukom o Ama sa justification. Ang pagpapatawad (justification), ang pagpapabanal (sanctification) at pag-ampon (adoption) ay ipinagkakaloob sa atin ng Diyos – Hukom at Ama – nang magkakasabay sa Binyag.
Pagdating naman sa issue ng “imputation of Christ’s righteousness”, sinasabi ng mga Protestante na hindi nagkakaroon ng sariling righteousness ang tao sa justification, itinuturing lang siyang righteous pero ang righteousness na iyon ay kay Cristo. Maganda sana ito. Kaso hindi Biblikal. Tingnan natin ang sinasabi ng Banal na Kasulatan…
1John 3:7 NIV – The one who does what is right is righteous, just as he is righteous.
Siguro kung Protestante ang babasa niyan, ganito niya yan babasahin: The one who does what is right is imputed with Christ’s righteousness. Pero hindi ganun ang sinabi.
Hebrews 12:23 NIV – You have come to God, the Judge of all, to the spirits of the righteous made perfect,
Paano kaya nila binabasa ito? You have come to the spirits of those imputed with Christ’s righteousness made perfect? Nangangahulugan lang ito na sa justification ginagawang matuwid (made righteous) ng Diyos ang tao. May righteousness na ipinagkakaloob ng Diyos sa tao…
Romans 5:17 NIV – For if, by the trespass of the one man, death reigned through that one man, how much more will those who receive God’s abundant provision of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man, Jesus Christ!
Ang righteousness na ito ay infused hindi imputed. Sa Google translation ang salin sa wikang Filipino ng “infuse” ay “humawa” at sa “infusion” naman ay “pagbubuhos”. Halimbawa ng infusion ay kapag naglagay ka ng teabag sa mainit na tubig at humawa ang katas ng dahon ng tsaa sa tubig. Isa pang halimbawa ay kapag nagbuhos ka ng likidong gatas sa isang basong tubig at humawa ang gatas sa tubig. Ganoon ang nangyayari sa katuwiran at kabanalan ni Cristo kapag tayo ay binibinyagan, ibinubuhos sa atin at tayo ay nahahawa. Ibinubuhos, inihahawa, at hindi ibinibintang lang sa atin ang pagiging matuwid ni Cristo.
John 4:14 NIV – but whoever drinks the water I give them will never thirst. Indeed, the water I give them will become in them a spring of water welling up to eternal life.
Thus, neither is our justice [righteousness] considered as coming from us, nor is God’s justice disregarded or denied [cf. Rom.10:3]; for the justice [righteousness] which is said to be ours because we become just [righteous] by its inherence in us is that of God himself, since it is infused in us by God through the merit of God.
(Council of Trent, Section VI, Chapter XVI)
Ang righteousness na ito ay ipinagkaloob sa atin. Kaya wala tayong dapat na ipagmalaki at huwag rin nating kalimutan na ito ay mula sa Diyos.
Ok. So, to summarize this article…
- Hindi forensic ang pagunawa ng Simbahan sa justification dahil walang dichotomy sa pagkilala ng Simbahan sa Diyos i.e. dichotomy ng pagiging Hukom o Ama.
- Hindi forensic ang justification dahil hindi ito nakahiwalay sa adoption at sanctification.
- Nangyayari ang justification, adoption at sanctification nang magkakasabay sa Baptism.
- Sa Baptism pinapatawad ang lahat ng ating mga kasalanan, ginagawa tayong anak, at pinapabanal tayo.
- Sa justification i.e. Baptism hindi lang tayo dinedeklarang matuwid, tayo ay ginagawang matuwid, tayo ay hinahawaan/binubuhusan (infused) ng katuwiran (righteousness) ni Cristo.
Sa mga susunod na article justification by faith alone, pagiging one-time event with continuous effect ng justification and assurance of salvation naman.